Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Overview > Bibliography


The following is a list of the work cited throughout the site. It is also the database's list of the 98 sources.

a Syracuse Research Corporation Databases. North Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Research Corporation. Retrieved September 2004 from
b Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 1021
c Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), National Library of Medicine, Specialized Information Services. Retrieved 2004 - 2005 from
d ChemExper Chemical Directory. Retrieved 2004 - 2005 from
e RxList. Retrieved 2004 - 2005 from
f CHEMINDEX. Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety. Retrieved 2004 - 2005 from
g MSDSOnline. Retrieved 2004 - 2005 from
h Fisher Chemical Electronic MSDS. Fisher Chemical Catalog. Retrieved 2004 - 2005 from
i Hot Drugs 2004: Infectious Diseases. Nature Reviews: Drug Discovery 3(7):S31
j The Global Chemical Exchange. Retreived 2004 from
k Pharmaceutical ECOSAR Database. Retrieved May 2005 from (from Sanderson, H., Johnson, D.J., Reitsma, T., Brain, R.A., Wilson, C.J., Solomon, K.R. (2004) Ranking and prioritization of environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters. Regulat. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 39(2):158-183
l Committee for medicinal products for human use European public assessment report (EPAR) - for Invanz (erapenem. European Medicines Agency (EMEA). Retrieved 2005 from
m TerraQSAR-LOGP computed octanol/water partition coefficients. Retrived 2005 from
n The Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Research Foundation. Retrieved 2005 from
o Sweetman S (Ed), Martindale: The complete drug reference. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Electronic version, (2005). Retrieved 2005 from
p Medsafe, New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority. Retrieved 2005 from
q Clarks Anaylsis of Drugs and Poisons. Retrieved 2005 from
r Zuccato, E. et al. (2001) Environmental loads and detection of Pharmaceuticals in Italy. Phamaceuticals in the Environment: Sources, fate effects and risks. K. Kummer. Springer_Verlag, Berlin.
s Webb, S.F. (2001) A data-based perspective on the environment risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals I - collation of available ecotoxicity data. Phamaceuticals in the Environment: Sources, fate effects and risks. K. Kummer. Springer_Verlag, Berlin.
t Zwiener, C., T.J. Gremm, and F.H. Frimmel. (2001) Pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment and their significance for drinking water production. Phamaceuticals in the Environment: Sources, fate effects and risks. K. Kummer. Springer_Verlag, Berlin.
u Howard, Philip H. (1999) Handbook of Environmental degradation rates. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan.
v Cleuvers, M. (2004) Mixture toxicity of the anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, iburpofen, naproxen and acetylsalicylic acid. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 59:309-315.
w Donaubauer H.H. and D. Mayer. (1988) Acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity of the new angiotensin converting enxyme inhibitor ramipril. Arzneimittel Forschung/Drug Research 38(1):14-20.
x Ferrari, B., N. Paxeus, R. LoGuidice, A. Pollio, and J. Garric. (2003) Ecotoxicological impact of pharmaceuticals found in treated wastewaters: study of carbamazepine, clofibric acid and diclofenac. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 55:359-370.
y Halling-Sørensen, B. (2001) Inhibition of aerobic growth and nitrification bacteria in sewage sludge by antibacterial agents. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40:451-460.
z Halling-Sørensen, B., H.C. Holten Lützhøft, H.R. Andersen, and F. Ingerslev. (2000) Environmental risk assessment of antibiotics: comparison of mecillinam, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 46(Suppl. S1):53-58.
aa Halling-Sørensen, B., S. Nors Nielsen, P. F. Lanzky, F. Ingerslev, H. C. Holten Lützhøft and S. E. Jørgensen. (1998) Occurrence, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment - a review. Chemosphere 36(2):357-393.
bb Jones, O.A.H., N. Voulvoulis, and J.N. Lester. (2002) Aquatic environmental assesment of the top 25 English perscription pharmaceuticals. Water Research 36:5013-5022.
cc Pomati, F., A. Netting, D. Calamari, and B. Neilan. (2004) Effects of erythromycin, tetracycline and ibuprofen on the growth of Synechocystis sp. and Lemna minor. Aquatic Toxicoloty 67:387-396.
dd Sunshine, I. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Analytical Toxicology. Cleveland: The Chemical Rubber Co., 1969. 112.
ee Wollenberger, L., B. Halling-Sørensen, and K.O. Kusk. (2000) Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 40:723-730.
ff Yalkowsky S.H. and Dannenfelser R.M. The AQUASOL Database of Aqueous Solubility. Fifth Ed, Tucson, AZ: Univ Az, College of Pharmacy (1992).
gg Brooks, BW., C.M. Foran, S.M. Richards, J.J. Weston, P.K. Turner, J.K. Stanley, K.R. Solomon, M. Slattery, and T.W. La Point. (2003) Aquatic ecotoxicology of fluoxetine. Toxicological Letters 142:169-183.
hh ChemIDplus. Retrieved 2004 - 2005 from
ii LOGKOW: A databank of evaluated octonol-water partition coefficients (Log P). Sangster Research Laboratories. Retrived 2004 from
jj Daughton, CG, and TA Ternes. (1999) Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the environment: agens of subtle change? Environmental Health Perspectives 107(Suppl. 6):907-938.
kk Ternes, TA. (1998) Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Research 32(11):3245-3260.
ll EXOTOXNET. The EXtension TOXicology NETwork. Retrieved 2005 from
mm ChemFinder. Cambridge MA: CambridgeSoft Corporation. Retrieved November, 2003, from
nn Ashton, D., M. Hilton, and K.V. Thomas. (2004) Investigating the environmental transport of human pharmaceuticals to streams in the United Kingdom. Science of the total environment 333:167-184.
oo Castiglioni, S., R. Fanelli, D. Calamari, R. Bagnati, and E. Zuccato. (2004) Methodological approaches for studying pharmaceuticals in the environment by comparing predicted and measured concentrations in River Po, Italy. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology 39:25-32.
pp Brooks, B.W., P.K. Turner, J.K. Stanley, J.J. Weston, E.A. Glidewell, C.M. Foran, M. Slattery, T.M. LaPoint, and D.B. Huggett. (2003) Waterborne and sediment toxicity of fluoexetine to select organisms. Chemosphere 52:135-142.
qq Ferrari, B., R. Mons, B. Vollat, B. Fraysse, N. Paxeus, R. Lo Giudice, A. Pollio and J. Barric. (2004) Environmental risk assessment of six human pharmaceuticals: are the current environmental risk assessment procedures sufficient for the protection of the aquatic environment? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(5):1344-1354.
rr Hilton, M.J., and K.V. Thomas. (2003) Determination of selected human pharmaceutical compounds in effluent and surface water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 1015:129-141.
ss Lindsey, M.E., M. Meyer and E.M. Thurman. (2001) Analysis of Trace levels of sulfonamide and tetracycline antimicrobials in groundwater and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 73:4640-4646.
tt Le Bris, H. and H. Pouliquen. (2004) Experimental study of the bioaccumulation of oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). An evaluation of its ability to bio-monitor antibiotics in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48:434-440.
uu Samuelsen, O.B. (1989) Degradation of oxytetracycline in seawater at two different temperatures and light intensities, and the persistence of oxytetracycline in the sediment from a fish farm. Aquaculture 83:7-16.
vv Lam, M.W., K. Tantuco, and S.A. Mabury. (2003) PhotoFate: A new approach in accounting for the contribution of indirect photolysis of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in surface waters. Environmental Science and Technology 37(5):899-907.
ww Andreozzi, R., V. Caprio, C. Ciniglia, M. De Champdore, R. Lo Guidice, R. Marotta, and E. Zuccato. (2004) Antibiotics in the environment: Occurence in Italian STPs, fate and preliminary assessment on algal toxicity of amoxicillin. Environmental Science and Technology 38:6832-6838.
xx U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. ECOTOX User Guide: ECOTOXicology Database System. Version 3.0. Available: http:/
yy Cleuvers, M. (2003) Aquatic ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals including the assessment of combination effects. Toxicology Letters 142:185-194.
zz Lam, M.W., C. Young, R. Brain, D. Johnson, M. Hanson, C. Wilson, S. Richards, K. Solomon and S. Mabury. (2004) Aquatic persistence of eight pharmaceuticals in a microcosm study. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(6):1431-1440.
aaa Costanzo, S.D., J. Murby and J. Bates. (2005) Ecosystem response to antibiotics entering the aquatic environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:218-223.
bbb Al-Ahmad, A., F.D. Daschner and K. Kummerer. (1999) Biodegradability of cefotiam, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin G and sulfamethoxazole and inhibition of waste water bacteria. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 37:158-163.
ccc Tixier, C., H.P. Singer, S. Oellers and S.R. Muller. (2003) Occurrence and fate of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in surface waters. Environmental Science and Technology 37(6):1061-1068.
ddd Andreozzi, R., R. Marotta, P. Nicklas. (2003) Pharmaceuticals in STP effluents and their solar photodegradation in aquatic environment. Chemosphere 50:1319-1330.
eee Holm, J.V., K. Rugge, O.L. Bjerg and T.H. Christensen. (1995) Occurence and distribution of organic compounds in the groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark). Environmental Science & Technology 29(5):1415-1420.
fff Top 300 Prescriptions for 2004 by Number of US Prescriptions Dispensed. Retrieved 2005 from
ggg Thomas, KV, MJ Hilton. (2004) The occurrence of selected human pharmaceuticals compounds in UK estuaries. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49:436-444.
hhh Lalumera, G.M., D. Calamari, P. Galli, S. Castiglioni, G. Crosa, R. Fanelli. (2004) Preliminary investigaion on the environmental occurence and effects of antibiotics used in aquaculture in Italy. Chemosphere 54:661-668.
iii Pouliquen, H., H. Le Bris, L. Pinault. (1993) Experimental study on decontamination kinetics of seawater polluted by oxytetracycline contained in effluents realeased from a fish farm located in a salt-marsh. Aquaculture 112:113-123.
jjj la Farre, M., I. Farrer, A. Binebreda, M. Figueras, L. Olivella, L. Tirapu, M. Vilanova, D. Barcelo. (2001) Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectormetry: methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri. Journal of Chromatography A 938:187-197.
kkk Stackelberg, P.E., E.T. Furlong, M.T. Meyer, S.D. Zaugg, A.K. Henderson, D.B. Reissman. (2004) Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water treatment plant. Science of the Total Environment 329:99-113
lll 2004 Prescription dispensal data. Retrieved 2006 from Wolters Kluwer Health, Phoenix, Arizona.
mmm Gange, F., C. Blaise, M. Fournier, and P.D. Hansen. (2006) Effects of selected pharmaceutical products on phagocytic activity in Elliptio complanata mussels. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 143:179-186.
nnn Quinn, B., F. Gange, and C. Blaise. (2008) An investigation into acute and chronic toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals (and their solvents) found in wastewater effluent on the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata. Science of the Total Environment
ooo Kolpin, D.W., E.T. Furlong, M.T. Meyer, E.M. Thurman, S.D. Zaugg, L.B. Barber, and H.T. Buxton. (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance. Environmental Science and Technology 36:1202-1211.
ppp Marina, I., A. Nardelli, L. Pascarella, M. Rubino, and A. Parrella. (2007) Toxic and genotoxic impact of fibrates and their photoproducts on non-target organisms. Environmental International 33:635-641.
qqq Glassmeyer, S.T., E.T. Furlong, D.W. Kolpin, J.D. Cahill, S.D. Zuagg, S.L. Werner, M.T. Meyer, and D.D. Kryak. (2005) Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination. Environmental Science Technology 39:5157-5169.
rrr Kolpin, D.W., M. Skopec, M.T. Meyer, E.T. Furlong, and S.D. Zuagg. (2004) Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions. Science of the Total Environment 328:119-130.
sss Nunes, B., F. Carvalho, and L. Guilhermino. (2005) Acute toxicity of widely used pharmaceuticals in aquatic species: Gambusia holbrooki, Artemia parthenogenetica and Tetraselmis chuii. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 60:413-419.
ttt Pomati, F., A.G. Netting, D. Calamari, and B.A. Neilan. (2004) Effects of erythromycin, tetracycline and ibuprofen on the growht of Synechocystis sp. and Lemma minor. Aquatic Toxicology 67:387-369.
uuu Lishman, L., S.A. Smyth, K. Sarafin, S. Kleywegt, J. Toito, T. Peart, B. Lee, M. Servos, M. Beland and P. Seto. (2006) Occurrence and reductions of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and estrogens by municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada. Science of the Total Environment 367(2-3):544-558.
vvv Kinney, C.A., E.T. Furlong, S.L. Werner and J.D. Cahill. (2006) Presence and distribution of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in soil irrigated with reclaimed water. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(2):317-326.
www Miao, X-S., and C.D. Metcalfe. (2003) Determination of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs in aqueous samples using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 998:133-141.
xxx Gobel, A., A. Thomsen, C.S. McArdell, A. Joss and W. Giger. (2005) Occurrence and sorption behavior of supfonamides, macrolides and trimethoprim in activated sludge treatment. Environmental Science and Technology 39:3981-3989.
yyy Dahl, U., E. Gorokhova and M. Breitholtz. (2006) Application of growth-related sublethal endpoints in ecotoxicological assessments using a harpacticoid copepod. Aquatic toxicology 77:433-438.
zzz Brown, K.D., J. Kulis, B. Thomson, T.H. Chapmane, D.B. Mawhinney. (2006) Occurrence of antibiotics in hospital, residential, and dairy effluent, municipal wastewater and the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Science of the Total Environment 366:772-783.
a1 Chen, M., K. Ohman, C. Metcalfe, M.G. Ikonomou, P.L. (2006) Amatya and J. Wilson. Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment effluents and in the water supply system of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 41(2):351-364.
b1 Antonic, J., and E. Heath. (2007) Determination of NSAIDs in river sediment samples. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 387:1337-1342.
c1 Isidori, M., A. Nardelli, A. Parrella, L. Pascarella, and L. Parevitera. (2006) A multispecies study to assess the toxic and genotoxic effect of pharmaceuticals: Furosemide and its photoproduct. Chemosphere 63:785-793.
d1 Lissmore, L., C. Hao, P. Yang, P.K. Sibley, S. Mabury, K.R. Solomon. (2006) An esposure assessment for selected pharmaceuticals within a watershed in Southern Ontario. Chemosphere 64:717-729.
e1 Bendz, D., N.A. Paxeus, T.R. Ginn, F.J. Loge. (2005) Occurence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment, a case study: Hoje River in Sweden. Journal of Hazardous Materials 122:195-204.
f1 Zuccato, E., S. Castiglioni and R. Fanelli. (2005) Identification of the pharmaceuticals for human use contaminating the Italian aquatic environment. Journal of Hazardous Materials 122:205-209.
g1 Richards, S.M. and S.E. Cole. (2006) A toxicity and hazard assessment of fourteen pharmaceuticals to Xenopus laevis larvae. Ecotoxicology 15:647-656.
h1 Miao, X-S., J-J. Yang and C.D. Metcalfe. (2005) Carbamazepine and its metabolites in wastewater and in biosolids in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Environmental Science and Technology 39:7469-7475.
i1 Pro, J., A. Ortiz, S. Boleas, C. Fernandez, G. Carbonell, J.V. Tarazona. (2003) Effect assessment of antimicrobial pharmaceuticals on teh aquatic plant Lemma minor. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 70:290-295.
j1 Brain, R.A., D.J. Johnson, S.M. Richards, M.L. Hanson, H. Sanderson, M.W. Lam, C. Young, S.A. Mabury, P.K. Sibley and K.R. Solomon. (2004) Microcosm evaluation of the effects of an eight pharmaceutical mixture to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum sibiricum. Aquatic Toxicology 70:23-40.
k1 Breitholtz, M. and B-E. Bengtsson. (2001) Oestrogens have no hormonal effect on the development and reprocution of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(10):879-886.
l1 Gagne, F., C. Blaise, and C. Andre. (2006) Occurrence of pharmaceutical products in a municipal effluent and toxicity to rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64:329-336.
m1 Karthikeyan, K.G. and M.T. Meyer. (2006) Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA. Science of the Total Environment 361:196-207.
n1 Yamashita, N., M. Yasojima, N. Nakada, K. Miyajima, K. Komori, Y. Suzuki and H. Tanaka. (2006) Effects of antibacterial agents, levofloxacin and clarithromycin, on aquatic organisms. Water Science & Technology 53(11):65-72.
o1 Verenithch, S.S., C.J. Lowe and A. Mazumder. (2006) Determination of acidic drugs and caffeine in municipal wastewaters and receiving waters by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 1116:193-203.
p1 Thomas, P.M. and G.D. Foster. (2004) Determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, caffeine, and triclosan in wastewater by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Environmental Science and Health A39(8):1969-1978.
q1 Quintana, J.B., S. Weiss, and T. Reemtsma. (2005) Pathways and metabolites of microbial degradation of selected acidic pharmaceuticals and their occurrence in municipal wastewater treated by a membrane bioreactor. Water Research 39:2564-2664.
r1 Metcalfe, C.D., B.G. Koenig, D.T. Bennie, M. Servos, T.A. Ternes and R. Hirsch. (2003) Occurrence of neutral and acidic drugs in the effluents of Canadian sewage treatment plants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(12):2872-2880.
s1 Stanley, J.K., A.J. Ramirez, M. Mottaleb, C.K. Chambliss and B.Y. Brooks. (2006) Enantiospecific toxicity of the ß-blocker propranolol to Daphnia magna and Pimphales promelas. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(7):1780-1786.
t1 Metcalfe, C.D., X-S. Miao, B.G. Koenig, and J. Struger. (2003) Distribution of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near sewage treatment plants in the lower great lakes, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(12):2881-2889.